If the commit is the last one:
You can also use rebase to edit the commit messages – choose ‘reword’ for the commits you wish to edit.
Warning: Doing a rebase does change the commit history – it changes the SHA of commits – so do not rebase a commit that has already been published otherwise you will end up with duplicated commits when your team merges your branch with their own branch.
Protip: You can ignore that rule if you are working on a feature branch and you are about to merge your work with
master and you just want to clean up things. Since you are going to be merging to master and then deleting the feature branch nobody is going to be affected. It is actually a good practice to do that in such a case.
Trivia: You can’t rebase the first commit of a repository, unless you pass the
git fetch: Updates your local repository with the data from remote.
git pull: Updates your working copy with the changes in the remote.
In practice: If you want to get the changes from remote without immediately changing your working copy then use
git fetch. Otherwise use
git pull does a
git fetch followed by a `git merge.
A conflict in Git occurs when two branches happen to modify the same area of code. Say you have a branch A:
…while branch B have this code in the same line:
In such case Git is not capable of merging both changes because Git can’t possibly know which one to choose. Your manual intervention is necessary and that is what we call a Git conflict. Git merging tools will markup areas in your code with conflict markers.
After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:
Decide not to merge.
git merge --abort can be used for this.
Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in the working tree. Edit the files into shape and
git add them to the index. Use
git commit to seal the deal.
Anatomy of a conflict marker:
Following the example, if we try to merge John’s branch in Jaime’s branch we would have had:
Understanding the intention behind each diff block is generally very helpful for understanding where a conflict came from and how to handle it.
This shows all of the commits that touched that file, considering just changes in between the common ancestor and the two heads you are merging, so it doesn’t include commits that already exist in both branches before merging. This helps you ignore diff blocks that clearly are not a factor in your current conflict.
After resolving the conflicts, it is a very good practice to test that you didn’t broke anything. Run your automated test suite.
The easiest conflicts to solve are the ones that never happened:
If there is something worse than a difficult merge is a merge that went wrong but got commited anyways. If you find yourself unable to resolve the conflicts with confidence, do not merge, instead abort the merge with
git merge abort and talk to your team on how to best tackle it.
Currently the design of the git index (staging area) only permits files to be listed. Directories are added automatically when adding files inside them. That is, directories never have to be added to the repository, and are not tracked on their own.
If you really need a directory to exist in checkouts you should create a file in it. For example a
.gitignore file; you can leave it empty.
Checkouts a branch named my_branch that exists in any of the remotes.
There are two cases:
Update from remote.
Reset the master branch to what you just fetched. The
--hard option changes all the files in your working tree to match the files in origin/master, so if you have any local changes, they will be lost. With or without
--hard, any local commits that haven’t been pushed will be lost.
This will stash everything that you haven’t previously added. Just git add the things you want to keep, then run it.